Glutamine Synthetase (In the pipeline)
Glutamine Synthetase (GS-6 or GS) catalyzes the conversion of glutamate and ammonia to glutamine in the liver, and is expressed in pericentral hepatocytes, but not in periportal hepatocytes or in the mid-zonal. Anti-Glutamine Synthetase is useful in some hepatocellular carcinomas and many high grade dysplastic nodules, and therefore may be useful in recognizing these cases. A panel of antibodies against HSP70 (heat shock protein 70), GPC3, and glutamine synthetase is useful for differentiating dysplastic from early malignant hepatocellular nodules in cirrhosis. GS staining of hepatocellular lesions is useful for the differential diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), hepatic adenoma (HCA), dysplastic nodules, and low grade hepatocellular carcinoma. FNH produces a “map-like” pattern when stained with Anti-Glutamine Synthetase. Conversely, HCA either stains negatively, produces border staining, or stains around the tumor veins.
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